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Lower Body


Acetabular Labrum-The acetabular labrum is a fibrous rim of cartilage around the hip socket that is important in normal function of the hip.  It helps keep the head of the femur inside the hip socket and provides stability to the joint. The two most common types of injury to the labrum are degenerative changes and labrum tears from injury due to sports, accident, fall or trauma. Symptoms include locking or clicking in the hip joint, hip pain and stiffness.

OA: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of chronic arthritis in the joints and affects millions of people world-wide. Sometimes called degenerative joint disease or “wear-and-tear” arthritis, osteoarthritis occurs when the protective cartilage on the ends of your bones wears down over a period of time. Symptoms include pain, tenderness and stiffness and loss of flexibility in the joint. 

THA: Total Hip replacement is a surgical procedure in which the damaged bone and cartilage is removed and replaced with prosthetic components.  The damaged femoral head is removed and replaced with a metal stem that is placed into the hollow center of the femur. Joint replacement orthopedic surgery is generally conducted to relieve arthritic pain or fix severe physical joint damage as part of hip fracture treatment.

ACL Injury-The ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament) is one of the four ligaments connecting the bones of the knee. The ACL provides stability to the knee, and minimizes the stress to the knee joint.  An anterior cruciate ligament injury is when the anterior cruciate ligament is either stretched, partially torn, or completely torn.  Symptoms include pain, a popping sound during injury, instability of the knee and joint swelling.

PCL Injury- The PCL (Posterior Cruciate Ligament) is one of the four ligaments connecting the bones of the knee.  The PCL is a tough band of ligament tissue and is located within the knee. It is larger and stronger than the ACL, but can also be torn. Symptoms include pain, swelling, wobbly sensation in the knee and trouble walking or bearing weight on the knee.

MCL Injury - The MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) is also one of the four major ligaments that connect the bones in the knee. The MCL is located on the inner aspect of the knee and gives strength and stability to the joint. A medial ligament sprain or MCL injury is a partial or full tear of the MCL and is usually a result of twisting or direct impact.

 LCL Injury- The LCL (Lateral Collateral Ligament) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee and is located on the outside of the knee connecting the femur to the tibia and gives stability to the knee joint. The collateral ligaments control the sideways motion of you knee and brace it against unusual movement.  A lateral collateral ligament sprain or injury can be a partial or full tear of the LCL and symptoms include pain, stiffness swelling or instability.

IT Band Syndrome-  An inflammation of the Iliotibial band, which is a fibrous band running from the hip to the outside of the knee. (Iliotibial Band Syndrome or “runner’s knee”) occurs when the IT band becomes tight or inflamed causing friction against the outside of the knee joint. Symptoms include pain over the outside of the knee which comes on gradually, over time getting progressively worse.

Strain/Sprain- Knee strains occur when ligaments and tendons in the knee become stretched or torn. These injuries are generally caused by overuse, or an extreme blow to the knee.


Strain/Sprain-An ankle sprain occurs when one or more of the ligaments in the ankle is either completely or just partially torn. The most common causes of ankle sprains are rolling, twisting or turning of the foot. Ankle strains are generally caused by the same motions, but the muscles are only stretched with a strain. Symptoms include pain, swelling, and stiffness. Ankle sprains can range from mild to severe and with a severe sprain it may be difficulty to bear weight and walk on the ankle.

Achilles tendon tear-The Achilles tendon is one of the longest tendons in the human body, spanning from the heel up to the calf muscles. Due to the force applied through it, the Achilles is one of the most commonly injured tendons in the body. A variety of factors such as sports/activities, sudden movement, foot conditions, or wearing high heels, can put excessive stress on the tendon causing it to fail. Injury to the Achilles tendon can be mild and feel like a burning pain or severe if the tendon is completely torn or ruptured.


Plantar Fasciitis-This condition is the most common cause of pain on the bottom of the heel. It occurs when the thick bands of tissue that support the arch of the foot becomes irritated and inflamed.

Orthotics- Many people think that orthotics are just arch supports, but actually they are custom made shoe inserts. Orthotics are designed to improve the biomechanics of each unique foot  by improving the position of the feet so better alignment is achieved. The changes necessary to ensure proper alignment varies from person to person. Orthotics fit into the shoe to correct foot positioning and help eliminate pain, wear and tear. Poor biomechanics of the foot can also be linked to a sore back or stiff neck. Orthotics encourages proper neutral position of the foot, which allows improved mechanics of the foot, alleviates pressure points and muscle strain and pain. Individuals with foot, neck, hip or back pain may benefit from orthotics. Your therapist can best determine if you need orthotics based on an evaluation of your condition. 

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