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Lower Body


Labrum-The hip labrum is the cartilage that surrounds the edge of the hip joint, the purpose of the labrum, just like in the shoulder, is to provide stability to the hip joint. The two most common types of injury to the labrum are degenerative, which are caused by repetitive use. The other type of labrum injury is usually due to some sort of sports injury, accident, fall, trauma, etc.

OA: Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis; it affects millions of people world-wide. Often called wear-and-tear arthritis, osteoarthritis occurs when the protective cartilage on the ends of your bones wears down over a period of time

THA: Total Hip replacement is a surgical procedure in which the hip joint is replaced by a prosthetic implant. Joint replacement orthopedic surgery is generally conducted to relieve arthritic pain or fix severe physical joint damage as part of hip fracture treatment. A total hip replacement consists of replacing both the acetabulum and the femoral head.


ACL-The ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament) is one of the four ligaments connecting the bones of the knee. The ACL provides stability to the knee, and minimizes the stress to the knee joint. A tear of this ligament often results from overstretching and twisting type activities.

MCL- The MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) is also one of the four major ligaments that connect the bones in the knee. The MCL goes from the end of the thigh bone (femur), to the top of the shin bone, (tibia). This ligament is often injured when there is some sort of blunt force to the outside of the knee and during cutting type sports/activities.

IT Band-The IT band goes from the hip, to the outside of the shin just under the knee. Illiotibial Band Syndrome (IT band syndrome) occurs when the IT Band gets tight, or inflamed causing friction and irratation. It is usually seen in individuals who run, bike, hike, etc.

Strain/Sprain- Knee strains occur when ligaments and tendons in the knee become stretched, or torn. These injuries are generally caused by overuse, or an extreme blow to the knee.


Strain/Sprain-An ankle sprain occurs when one or more of the ligaments in the ankle is either completely torn, or just partially torn. The most common causes of ankle sprains are rolling, twisting or turning of the foot. Ankle strains are generally caused by the same motions, but the muscles  are only stretched with a strain.

Achilles-The Achilles tendon is one of the longest tendons in the human body, spanning from the heel up to the calf muscles. Due to the force applied through it, the Achilles is one of the most commonly injured tendons in the body. A variety of factors such as sports/activities, sudden movement, foot conditions, or wearing high heels, can put excessive stress on the tendon causing it to fail.


Plantar Fasciitis-This condition is the most common cause of pain on the bottom of the heel. It occurs when the bands of tissue that supports the arch of the foot becomes irritated and inflamed.

Orthotics- Many people think that orthotics are just arch supports, when really they are custom made shoe inserts. Orthotics are designed to improve the biomechanics of each unique foot. By improving the position of the feet, better alignment is achieved. The changes necessary to ensure proper alignment varies from person to person. Orthotics fit into the shoe to correct foot positioning and help eliminate pain and wear and tear. Poor biomechanics of the foot can also be linked to a sore back or stiff neck. Orthotics encourages proper neutral position of the foot, which allows improved mechanics of the foot, alleviates pressure points, and muscle strain and pain. Individuals with foot, neck, hip or back pain may benefit from orthotics. Your therapist can best determine if you need orthotics based on an evaluation of your condition.