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Upper Body


Labral tear- The labrum is a  piece of fibrocartilage attached to the rim of the shoulder socket that helps keep the ball of the joint in place. When this cartilage is torn, it is called a labral tear.  Severe labral tears can ultimately result in instability and a dislocated shoulder. Symptoms include shoulder clicking, popping, catching sensation with certain shoulder movements followed by a vague aching. Laxity in the  shoulder.

Gleno Humeral Joint- The shoulder joint, formed by the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus.

AC Joint-The AC joint, (Acromioclavicular Joint) is the joint located between the collarbone, and the tip of the shoulder blade. The purpose of the joint is to help disperse the weight from the arms to the rest of the body when pushing pulling, lifting, etc. The AC joint is most commonly injured by a fall directly onto the shoulder.

Rotator Cuff Injury-The rotator cuff is a group of muscles, tendons and joint capsule of the shoulder that connect the upper arm to the shoulder blade giving it stability, as well as range of motion. Common injuries to the rotator cuff are tears, tendinitis, impingement and frozen shoulder.

Impingement Syndrome-  (Swimmer’s shoulder or thrower’s shoulder) Is caused by the tendons of the rotator cuff becoming impinged as they pass through the shoulder joint.

Strain/Sprain- A shoulder sprain occurs when the ligaments of the shoulder stretch or tear.  A shoulder strain is the result of the muscles in the shoulder becoming torn to different degrees (micro to complete tears) inflaming the tissue, and ultimately causing recurring pain. These injuries to the shoulder are most commonly caused by overexertion, repetitive activity or trauma.

Sternoclavicular Joint-This joint is where the collar bone meets the breastbone. There is a capsule around this joint, as well as ligaments to help give more support. This joint is heavily involved in moving the arms. Injury to this joint usually consists of trauma to the ligaments that give the joint support. A direct hit, or landing on the side of the body are the most common causes of injury.

Biceps Tendonitis – An inflammation or irritation of the upper biceps tendon.  Also called the long head of the biceps tendon, this strong, cord-like structure connects the biceps muscle to the bones in the shoulder. Pain in the front of the shoulder and weakness are common symptoms of biceps tendinitis.


Medial Epicondylitis (golfers elbow)-This is a condition in which the tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the bump on the inside of the elbow become inflammed. This condition is often caused by overusing the muscles in the forearm that ultimately allow an individual to rotate and grip their arm, and flex the wrist.

Lateral Epicondylitis (tennis elbow) – This is a painful condition in the lateral elbow that is caused by overuse or trauma. With this condition, the tendons that join the forearm muscles on the outside of the elbow become inflamed and cause pain and tenderness on the outside of the elbow.


Fracture-A forearm fracture occurs when there is a fracture to one, or both of the bones in the lower arm (radius or ulna). Fractures generally occur from a direct fall onto the hand or a direct blow to the arm.

Bicep Tears- The bicep has two tendons that attach the muscle to the bone in the shoulder and at the elbow. Bicep tendon tears will often occur due to trauma or extremely heavy lifting.   A distal bicep tendon tear or tear of your bicep tendon at the elbow are a common cause of pain, swelling and a “Popeye” bicep deformity.                                                                                                                                                                  

Strain/Sprain-A forearm strain occurs when there is either a partial or complete tear in the fibers of the forearm muscles. A strain occurs when the ligaments in the forearm are stretched past their normal capacity.


Sprain/Strain- A wrist sprain is injury to a ligament.  The wrist has many ligaments which are strong bands of connective tissue that connect one bone to another and can be stretched or torn resulting in a sprain. A common cause of wrist sprain is falling onto an outstretched hand.

Degenerative Changes- Many wrist injuries, such as fractures and sprains, heal fairly easily. However, they can lead to problems much later in life. The injury changes the anatomy of the wrist just enough so that the parts no longer work smoothly together. The changes from the injury cause a lot of wear and tear on the wrist joint. Over time, this wear and tear degenerate the tissues of the joint, leading to wrist osteoarthritis.    


De Quervains Tendinitis- This condition occurs when the tendons around the base of the thumb are constricted or irritated. The swelling of these tendons and tendon sheath, can cause pain and tenderness on the thumb side of the wrist. This can be more noticeable when making a fist, grasping, or gripping things.

Trigger Finger- This condition occurs when one of your fingers gets stuck in a bent position.  Your finger may straighten with a snap – like a trigger being pulled and released. Trigger finger occurs when inflammation narrows the space within the sheath that surrounds the tendon in the affected finger. 

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome-  When the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the palm of the hand, becomes compressed at the wrist and causes  numbness, tingling, weakness and pain in the hand and wrist.

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