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Labral- The labrum is a cuff of cartilage located in the shoulder, which forms a cup which guides the humeral head during movement. The most common injury to the labrum is a labral tear common referred to as a SLAP lession, which gives symptoms such as pain or aching in the shoulder joint, pain or weakness in the shoulder and catching of the shoulder during movement. Severe labral tears can ultimately result in instability and a dislocated shoulder.

Gleno Humeral Joint- The shoulder joint, formed by the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus.

AC Joint-The AC joint, (Acromioclavicular Joint) is the joint located between the collarbone, and the tip of the shoulder blade. The purpose of the joint is to help disperse the weight from the arms to the rest of the body when pushing pulling, lifting, etc. The AC joint is most commonly injured by a fall directly onto the shoulder.

Rotator Cuff-The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons and joint capsule of the shoulder that connect the upper arm to the shoulder blade, giving it stability, as well as range of motion. Common injuries to the rotator cuff are tears, tendinitis, impingement, frozen shoulder, etc.

Strain/Sprain-A shoulder sprain occurs when the ligaments of the shoulder stretch or tear.  A shoulder strain is the result of the muscles in the shoulder becoming torn to different degrees (micro to complete tears) inflaming the tissue, and ultimately causing recurring pain. These injuries to the shoulder are most commonly caused by overexertion, repetitive activity or trauma.

Sternoclavicular Joint-This joint is where the collar bone meets the breastbone. There is a capsule around this joint, as well as ligaments to help give more support. This joint is heavily involved in moving the arms. Injury to this joint usually consists of trauma to the ligaments that give the joint support. A direct hit, or landing on the side of the body are the most common causes of injury.


Medial Epicondylitis (golfers elbow)-This is a condition in which the tendons of the forearm muscles attach to the bump on the inside of the elbow become inflammed. This condition is often caused by overusing the muscles in the forearm that ultimately allow an individual to rotate and grip their arm, and flex the wrist.

Lateral Epicondylitis (tennis elbow) – This is a painful condition in the elbow that is caused by overuse or trauma. With this condition, the tendons that join the forearm muscles on the outside of the elbow become inflamed and cause pain and tenderness on the outside of the elbow, ultimately damaging the forearm muscles and tendons. While playing tennis or other racquet sports can cause this condition which is were the name has originated. Many other activities can also cause lateral epicondylitis.

Radial Head- The most proximal aspect of the radius bone. This area allows pronation and supination of the forearm. Sprains strains and fractures can affect its function.


Fracture-A fracture to the forearm or commonly referred to as a wrist fracture, occurs when there is a fracture to one, or both of the bones in the arm (radius, and ulna). Fractures generally occur from a direct fall onto the hand, a direct blow to the arm, often seen in direct contact sports, or accidents.

Bicep Tears- The bicep has two tendons that attach the muscle to the bone in the shoulder and one tendon that attaches at the elbow. The tendon at the elbow is also called the distal biceps tendon. It attaches to the radial tuberosity. This is a small bump on one of the bones in your forearm (radius) near your elbow joint. Tendonitis is common problem in the shoulder. Less common are complete tears which can occur either in the shoulder or elbow. 

Strain/Sprain-A forearm strain occurs when there is either a partial or complete tear in the fibers of the forearm muscles. A strain occurs when the ligaments in the forearm are stretched past their normal capacity.


Sprain/Strain- A wrist sprain is a common injury for all sorts of athletes. All it takes is a momentary loss of balance. As you slip, you automatically stick your hand out to break your fall. But once your hand hits the ground, the force of impact bends it back toward your forearm. This can stretch the ligaments that connect the wrist and hand bones a little too far. The result is tiny tears or -- even worse -- a complete break of the ligament.

Degenerative Changes- Many wrist injuries, such as fractures and sprains, heal fairly easily. However, they can lead to problems much later in life. The injury changes the anatomy of the wrist just enough so that the parts no longer work smoothly together. The changes from the injury cause a lot of wear and tear on the wrist joint. Over time, this wear and tear degenerate the tissues of the joint, leading to wrist osteoarthritis.    


De Quervains Tendinitis- This condition occurs when the base of the thumb are constricted or irritated. The thickening of these tendons can cause pain and discomfort on the thumb side of the wrist. This can be more noticeable when making a fist, grasping, or gripping things.

Trigger Finger- This condition limits the movement of the fingers and thumbs. Due to its effect on the tendons, when attempting to straighten fingers and thumbs, they will often “lock or catch” before actually straightening.

Carpal Tunnel- This condition occurs when the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the palm of the hand, gets squeezed at the wrist, more often than not, this condition causes tingling, pain and other problems. The symptoms will be isolated to the palm side of the thumb and adjacent two fingers.