Labral- The labrum is a cuff of cartilage located in the shoulder, which forms a cup which guides the humeral head during movement. The most common injury to the labrum is a labral tear common referred to as a SLAP lession, which gives symptoms such as pain or aching in the shoulder joint, pain or weakness in the shoulder and catching of the shoulder during movement. Severe labral tears can ultimately result in instability and a dislocated shoulder.

Gleno Humeral Joint- The shoulder joint, formed by the glenoid cavity of the scapula and the head of the humerus.

AC Joint-The AC joint, (Acromioclavicular Joint) is the joint located between the collarbone, and the tip of the shoulder blade. The purpose of the joint is to help disperse the weight from the arms to the rest of the body when pushing pulling, lifting, etc. The AC joint is most commonly injured by a fall directly onto the shoulder.

Rotator Cuff-The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons and joint capsule of the shoulder that connect the upper arm to the shoulder blade, giving it stability, as well as range of motion. Common injuries to the rotator cuff are tears, tendinitis, impingement, frozen shoulder, etc.

Strain/Sprain-A shoulder sprain occurs when the ligaments of the shoulder stretch or tear.  A shoulder strain is the result of the muscles in the shoulder becoming torn to different degrees (micro to complete tears) inflaming the tissue, and ultimately causing recurring pain. These injuries to the shoulder are most commonly caused by overexertion, repetitive activity or trauma.


Sternoclavicular Joint-This joint is where the collar bone meets the breastbone. There is a capsule around this joint, as well as ligaments to help give more support. This joint is heavily involved in moving the arms. Injury to this joint usually consists of trauma to the ligaments that give the joint support. A direct hit, or landing on the side of the body are the most common causes of injury.